The Belle Époque, 1871 – 1914
This ‘Beautiful Age’ was a period of rapid commercial, social and cultural development as relative peace and industrial development wrought major changes upon society. This period heralded mass consumerism. The name was retrospectively applied, reputedly by the affluent who had benefitted most from the era.
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1872 – Impressionism
1880s-90s – Georges Auguste Escoffier – acknowledged as the central figure to the modernization of haute cuisine and organizing what would become the national cuisine of France
1894 – Dreyfus Affair – J’accuse
1910 – Gauloises unfiltered cigarettes using dark tobacco